Tuesday, March 10, 2015

5-24-2015 Return of Vegetaition to the White Mountains after the Wisconsinan Ice Sheet retreats (in progress).

(ed: I'm going to start this article again with an apology to readers who have come back tmonth after month to find it still lying about untouched and not one has issued a complaint. So, thank you and as reported earlier I've been sidelined by work work but am finally finding time to research and write.  Parts of this article that followfocus on the evolution of the large ice sheets that intermittently, up until 10,000 years, ago covered most of what's now Canada and the northern tier of the US get some waht technical and I've tried my best to navigate us through the complex "mechanisms") 

 
Nothing defines the Gale River Trail (GRT) more than the bottom half which is a long slog from the car park along a old logging road used for the last time in the early 1960s. Either way, up or down, it feels like an eternity. This photo was taken on November 1, 2014, the last time I was in the Whites for a hike. It was a low cast, grey day, that felt like snow, fresh snow. It was quiet, as well.

 The other defining feature of the GRT is the Gale River itself that's always a welcome companion.
         
I was on my way up the trail to an old landslide track where I have been taking measurements for several years of the changes in the vegetation on the slide track itself. When the slide occurred on September 1, 1954, it ore away all vegetation, the top soil and a lot of sand, gravel and rocks. At it's top on the eastern flank of Mt. Garfield, the slide reduced the mountain's flank to bare ledge. On the lowest section close to the bank of the Gale River, the track nearly level where some debris stopped and has rested since which included logs, boulders, sand and gravel. The delicate forest top soil that had once been a thin, fragile blanket covering the mountain was unceremoniously tugged down the mountain by the slide. Much of it disappeared, washed down the mountain in the flood that followed the slide.

                   It's believed that mountain trolls sheltered under this ancient bridge many years ago.

The slide was typical of dozens of slides that have left their initials on the steep sides of White Mountain peaks like Lafayette, Carter Dome, North Twin, Tripyramid, Cherry, and others. It was 300 feet wide at its widest point and about 1500 feet long. It came down during Hurricane Carol when heavy rains were sweeping the mountain slopes. It came down without warning at close to 2 pm. Luckily no one was near the site at the time of the slide. A member of the hut crew, Ben Bowditch, was below the slide carrying a pack board laden with 80-100 pounds of food and supplies for Galehead Hut. His sister, with a friend, had arrived at noon with the AMC supply truck and decided not to wait for her brother and she and her friend headed up the trail as Ben tied up his load at the pack house. Ben started up the trail around 1 pm. In those days, the distance from the pack house to the hut was 5.7 miles. The slide site is roughly 4.6 miles from the site of the old pack house. The two young women just  missed being caught in the slide and made it to the hut without knowledge of the slide. During the elapsed time between the slide ravaging the side of Mt. Garfield and Ben's packing up towards the site a debris dam caused by the slide was backing up water from the rain swollen Gale River. When Ben was about a 1/2 mile down stream the dam let go and a wall of water a few feet high started down the valley. Ben heard it coming, saw it, dropped his pack board, and climbed the closest tree as fast as he could to avoid drowning. He lost the packboard and its load of food.

Steps built in 1963 that ascended to the crown of the debris left by the slide when the site was free of vegetation.

From the top of the steps looking up the Gale River. On a clear day a shoulder of North Twin would be visible above the trees. It was within the area described in this photo that the small lake from the debris dam quickly filled, reached its threshold and burst, sending a substantial flood down the river valley.

The slide in profile. The debris dam did not last long with the river's high rate of flow. Those who have witnessed large slides like this one say they move very fast and take absolutely everything in their path down with the. A good example is the slide late in the 1800s that occurred on the north side of Owls Head in Jefferson, NH, that was similar in size and shape to the Gale River slide and witnessed by a number of people who said it came down in a matter of minutes with a swoosh.

                         Galehead Hut looked like this back in 1954. Mt. Galehead to the right.

Wednesdays and Saturdays were "truck trip" days for the AMC hut system. Hurricane Carol "slammed" into New England on Tuesday, August 31st and headed north-northeast into Maine and New Hampshire. It's probable that the slide occurred September 1st as the soil on the mountain sides became saturated from the 4.5 inches of rain that was dumped on the White Mountains by the storm. Ben's sister and her friend passed the slide area in a narrow corridor of time just before the slide occurred. They did not hear a rumble or feel the ground shake. When Ben did not show up at the hut, Art Prentiss, the hut master, and two others descended the trail looking for him. Art. later and in a private phone conversation, remarked that "it was a pretty wild night" when they went out looking for Ben. They were shocked by the size of the slide and feared Ben may have been killed or injured. They kept going downhill shouting his name and finally hailed Ben who was descending on the opposite side of the river. Art and the hut guests walked on the west side of the swollen river and Ben walked down the east side back down to Route 3. They then drove and hiked to Zealand Hut and had breakfast and Ben rested before going back up to Ghoul (Galehead Hut).

The bottom of the slide track in November 1967 thirteen years after the slide. Note returning vegetation in the form of alders and balsam firs. It's still possible to see the damage done by the flood from the slide on the opposite bank and downstream, too, where all the alders are growing.

The top soil that came down in the slide was swept downstream when the dam burst. Medium sized boulders, rocks, gravel, sand were also swept downstream. What was left on the side track did not fit was silt, gravel and these boulders. There was top soil but only in pockets.

The slide track as it looked in November 1974, twenty years after the slide. Note the vegetation at the edges of the slide which is mostly alder and some poplar (Aspen), two pioneering species. The top most section is still bare ledge. In 1974 there were a few woody plants growing in soil-catching cracks in the upper ledges. In the middle section, on a wide shelf traversing the slide track, there were clumps of alder and poplar, beginning to colonize the slide track. There is a mix of exposed bed rock, gravelly soil

By November 2014, jumping ahead 40 years, the biomass has increased dramatically. This photo shows the southeast corner of research Plot #1 (in the northeastern corner of the research area) and the accumulated organic debris that's a mainstay of forest plants and soils. What you also see is  evidence of "succession. That is the process in which plants colonizes a favorable site and continue to grow there until there's and upheaval and other pants take over the site. Succession occurs in stages,  and might happen quickly (a few growing seasons) or slowly involving decades or longer.

There are two goals of this informal research where the 1954 Gale River landslide occurred. The first is to better understand the stages of repair by plants that begins after a landslide (or a vast continental ice sheet). This includes, as in this case, a slide that has scoured the mountain side down to the basement rock. This goal involves measuring the amount of time that passes between the event, the landslide in this case, and the advent of vegetation. In the1968 color photos above there is spotty vegetation and in the black and white photo six years later, the vegetation is still spotty. It has taken decades for the site to support growth. Accurate measurement might offer a realistic idea of how long it took vegetation to re-colonize this region after the Wisconsinan Glacier eventually melted away from the mountains.  Many disturbances, large and small, can destroy large tracts of vegetation in the mountains, but few can fully clean the rock of all vegetation and the soil itself, even a forest fire. Only large landslides and the grinding of glaciers like the vast ice sheets that passed by here thousands of years ago can scrape away all soil and plant life.  

I've simplified my tools and methods so that I am sure I leave no trace of my presence here. I measure soil depth with heavy duty knitting needles.

In the past 7 years of studying soil development in the track of the 1954 slide soil development takes place incrementally. In some plots it is barely negligible year to year like one plot that is host to a thick population of small balsam fir. In other plots it grows quickly, a 1/4 to 3/8 of an inch a year. The "plots" that I have randomly selected are 10 meter square and the pace of soil development (growth) varies from meter to meter. Gravity is an important factors in soil development, as you can imagine. In mountain areas with steep slopes it makes sense that soils would have a difficult time developing where soil building material is easily be transported down slope during heavy rains, avalanches, snow melt, spring runoff, and small and large land slides, etc. That is what has happened here and probably dozens of times. Old timers, older than I, recall the presence of landslide tracks from several slides similar to the 1954 slide that ran parallel to it, but much earlier. It is a safe conclusion that the mountains are always moving and in some place more dramatically than others.

Plot #1 is close to the river and is one of two plots that are fairly level. Soil development on these plots out performs other plots that are, on average, steeper even if they have dense vegetation. The mix here is some evergreen fern, some red spruce, balsam fir, with a lot of organic debris across the forest floor. Measuring the biomass of each of the plots is time consuming but fascinating. The presence of a large amount of particulate organic matter (POM) is intrinsic to the preservation of productive soil.

Plots #1 and #2 have the most organic matter. This is the northwest corner of Plot #2 and, like plot #1 the soil here is productive, drains extremely well, and has a surplus of organic matter to provide more than enough nutrient. The vegetation in this plot includes some large white and yellow birch that donate tons of organic nutrients to the soil here. The pattern suggests that some areas are much richer in nutrient than others in the same plot. Overall, Plot #2 is the best drained.

A large yellow birch in Plot #2, twenty-one inches in diameter, that's getting sprinkled with snow as snow showers pass through the mountains..

The other goal of this research is to better understand the forest as it stands now which means studying the track of succession that has occurred here since the that period between 18,000 and 7,000 years ago when the Wisconsinan ice sheet melted down and faded away..

You have probably heard the expression, "the forest took back the land' as when an abandoned pasture or corn field gives way to white pine seedlings that soon evolve into a forest. "Succession" in its ecological context means the process by which species of plants live, move, grow, and die. It refers to the stages by which plant communities develop over time and effect environments. Succession is often guided by the presence of a limiting factor. There are many synonyms for this process. It is often spoken of as competition as in the dominance of one plant, or group of plants, over others. From the human perspective it  could certainly mean a successful fight by one species over another, but it is better defined as "opportunity". Charles Darwin said it well: "Those who have learned to collaborate and improvise most effectively have prevailed."

W. D. Billings, one of my early teacher, gives a good definition of Succession in his classic Plants, Man, and the Ecosystem, published in 1965 and again in 1970.


“We all know what happens when we fail to cultivate or weed the garden; weeds soon replace the tomatoes or marigolds. On a small scale, this replacement is similar to the change that takes place in the vegetation of any ecosystem where a limiting factor is removed. Moreover, the dominant plants of an ecosystem may so change the environment that their reproduction fails, where as that of another species with different tolerances will succeed. (cont.)

The southwest corner of Plot #2 has a gentle slope and a lot of debris from the 1954 slide that is still visible. The organic matter on the ground, the dead wood and leaves all represent reserves of stored nutrient and soil building material. The yearly cycle of material is not democratic particularly with respect to distribution so a good supply from a variety of sources is an asset for the existing plants.

(Billings cont.) "In the case of the garden the limiting factor is selective cultivation. When this is removed, the weeds’ ever abundant seedlings survive and soon overtop the cultivated plants. If we should decide to abandon this garden completely, would the weeds remain there year after year? In most cases there will be a change from the weeds to something else. The change may be either gradual or fast, and will continue until the vegetation is made up of species in complete equilibrium both with the general environment and with the microenvironment that determines the success or failure of reproduction. The series of vegetational changes on a single site is called plant or vegetational  succession. The early changes can be relatively rapid, but eventual stabilization of the vegetation may take centuries.(cont.)

The area in the photo above looking uphill in Plot #2 in the early fall.
 
(Billings cont.) Succession on new areas is called Primary Succession. Such succession must perforce, always be accompanied by the development of a soil. Vegetational succession  and soil development go hand in hand—slowly at first, then more rapidly, and then slowly again—but they cannot be separated nor can one reach stability without the other.
The same ares of Plot #2 in the early summer.

 (Billings cont.) Primary succession starting on bare rock is particularly slow. No matter what the climate, there is no drier micro-environment than that of a rock surface from which water escapes by runoff and by evaporation. The first plants are likely to be crustose, intricately patterned lichens. These lichens, however, contribute very little to the breakdown of the rock into elementary soil. The big contribution to vegetational establishment and soil initiation are usually made by moss mats or by herbaceous vascular plants, which get started along deep cracks in the rock. Since these cracks vary in abundance with the type of rock, the speed of succession and soil formation depend to some extent on these rock characteristics.

Plot #4 which is mostly, if not all, thin balsam fir that grow very slowly due to lack of light and very poor soil, a thin, talc-like sand with little nutrient.


(Billings cont.) Succession starting in open water is relatively fast. The northern part of the American Midwest is dotted with forested bogs that were open water glacial lakes less than 10,000 years ago. Conversely, the bare glacially polished rocks of the Canadian Shield not far to the north still have little soil or vegetational  development.

Plot #4 receives very little moisture other than during the winter when snow is blown into the dense thickets of evergreens.


(Billings cont.) Once a soil has developed, the vegetation over it may be destroyed by fire, grazing, or cultivation. If the soil is not destroyed by erosion caused by the removal of the original vegetation, it provides a ready-made substratum for revegetation. The revegetation is called Secondary Succession. Because {secondary succession) does not need to wait for soil development, it is relatively rapid. Stability is reached in terms of few centuries as compared to the thousands or tens of thousands of years involved in most primary succession. The abandoned garden with its weeds are stages in secondary succession.”

Plants, Man, and the Ecosystem by W.D. Billings, 1964 by Wadworth Publishing Company, Berkeley, CA. Fundamentals of Botany Series. Reprinted 1970. p 89-90.

Examples of Disturbances resulting in Secondary Succession

At 5 am on October 8, 2014 a fast moving storm coming out of the northwest generated a "micro burst" when it confronted Mt. Tom, the western most peak in the Holyoke Range in west central Massachusetts, a few miles from my home. (you can google a report and photos of the damage on the day of the micro burst at Micro Burst, Mt. Tom). It lasted only a few minutes but caused extensive damage that was difficult to take in. It looked like a large bomb had been dropped. Huge areas of what had been ancient red oaks where flattened in a matter of seconds. Trees were shattered, huge stumps ripped from the ground, and a building that stood at the entrance gate of the summit road was shattered to oblivion.

It created a wild feeling of awe that this damage could have happened in just a few minutes.

                                  Trees were snapped off pretty much at similar heights, or

                                                ripped out of the ground roots and all.

                                  This is the root ball of the huge stump in the photo above.


The road to the mountain's summit that was heavily shaded by red oaks for most of its length. The shade was so dense it felt like driving through a tunnerl. The oaks were ancient. Crews came in immediately to salvage trees for lumber.

Again, this is a form of succession that goes on and on through out the history of the planet.

It was difficult to assess the loss. Members of the salvage crews spoke about finding thousands of bodies of small animals like squirrels and birds. A bald eagle found trapped under a large tree was removed successfully, taken to a veterinarian and was able to fly off within a few days.

Looking at the damage from the microburst and the damage from the tornado that hit Springfield, MA. in June 2010 the damage is similar and looked similar to these photos which probably look similar to the aftermath of the September 1915 storm that pummeled the White Mountains and leveled huge tracts of forests that were recovering, in a secondary succession, from the large scale logging and devestating fires following the logging in areas of the White Mountains beginning in the mid 1870s. It's reasonable to believe that disturbances of all kinds, large and small, have left their mark throughout the region including the White Mountains as the Wisconsinan Glacier melted back to the north where it came from. 

I want to get back to the Gale River slide by saying I am not suggesting that the landslide in an way duplicates the remarkable changes caused by the Wisconsinan ice sheet. What the glacier did to the forest that existed at that time is on a far different scale than this realtively small landslide and suggests very long term, primary succession in most of the glaciated areas, but certainly not in all areas covered by the ice sheet. There were many exceptions which will be explained below.

My research only is meant to perhaps glimpse the pace of soil growth in smaller models of primary succession and what similarities they have with the growth of soils following the final retreat of the Wisconsinan ice sheet and the emergence of the lovely forests that blanket the White Mountains at the current time.
 
Example of Primary Succession: moss and lichen growing on granite.

 
 And another: a snoozing glacial erratic near the Zealand Trail.

Part II: Glacial "Sheet" Mechanics.

This article, in fact this blog, came to life from a few thoughts I had standing on top of Mt. Adams on a clear, cold, February day in 2005. I was looking south at Mt. Washington admiring the shape and complexity of the Great Gulf including Jefferson Ravine and Madison Gulf and the Great Gulf, itself, which are all the remnants of small alpine glaciers that formed here 100s of thousands of years ago.

In those few moments as I gazed from the Atlantic to the Adirondacks, a sweep of nearly 150 miles, I was  looking at a large chunk of the Northern Appalachian Mountain or Highlands and wondering what this same view was like when the the Wisconsinan Ice Sheet was at its peak here just before commencement of deglaciation.

My thoughts took me back 20,000 years when the ice sheet was in position here and was all the eye could see. I tried to imagine what it would look like if I chiseled a shaft straight through the ice up to the surface directly over what is now the summit of Mt. Adams. Would it be a vast flat surface or would it undulate much like the White Mountains do today with their varied topography. Twenty thousand years ago most of the White Mountains were several hundred feet below the surface of the ice sheet. Mt. Washington, itself, is more than likely to have been below the ice sheet. So, I was dreaming of a frozen surface stretching from the realms of Hudson Bay east and west south to what is now the south coast of New England its surface undulating in a pattern  of "domes and saddles" with
 nunataks, those islands of rock and soil sticking up through the ice sheet. The nunataks are fascinating features in the glacial panorama. If I was around then I would have summited one to see what, if anything, was growing on them. Imagine the summit of Mt. Washington 17,000 (17,000K BP) years ago as a nunatak or, 7,000 years when it may have been possible to put on skis to take a run down to Mt. Munroe.

A bibliography by Canadian Ecologist E. C. Pielou that she published with her excellent book After The Ice Age, The Return of Life to Glaciated North America, (University of Chicago Press,  Chicago, 1991).Throughout the discussion where I cite facts from her book l will  notate them by  her last name, "Pielous", with the page number.

During the entire Glacial Period there were some times vast variations in temperatures as well as ice depths and coverage, of the ice. There were, according to E. C. Pielou, long periods when the weather on and around the ice sheet would have been frigid; similar to Arctic and Antarctic conditions in the mid-20th century. She notes that "katabatic" winds like those measured descending the fronts of the Greenland and Antarctic ice caps, would have descended from the higher points of the Wiscosinan ice sheet, some 3,500 meters (11,000 feet) in altitude, at speeds of up to 156 kilometers per hour (100 miles per hour). Glacial Periods  have come and gone several times, the last one reportedly was 250k BP (or 250,000 years ago) each time followed by an Intergalcial Period. The Wisconsinan was the last ice age and having just ended fairly recently we're now in the interglacial period of time which, according to Pielou, will end relatively soon

The beginning and end of an ice age is brought on by climate change which is brought about by several things including drifting continents, rising and lowering sea levels, and solar cycles; specifically the 100,000 year-long Milankovitch Cycle that's made up of three smaller cycles plus the Hypsithermal Cycle. There have been 19 to 20 intensely cold glaciations in the last billion years followed by interglacial periods of 10,00 to 40, 000 years. It's important to note that glacial ages or interglacial periods are not uniformly cold. They alternate constantly from very cold to moderate or mild periods that each might last several thousand years.The climate change goes on constantly.

Pielou writes that it appears that the climate "has a 100,000 year cycle in which glaciations lasting  60,000 to 90,000 years alternate with interglacial periods lasting 10,000 to 40,000 years, respectively. What must be explained is the reason for the 100,000 year climate cycle." Pielou says the 100,000 year cycle is based on the Earth's orbit around the sun in what is called the Milankovich Cycle. The Milakovich is made up of three other cycles including a 105,000 year cycle in the shape of the Earth's orbit from a more elongated to a less elongated ellipse. Second is the 41,000 year cycle in the tilt of the earth's axis and, third, a "21,000year cycle which begins at the point that the Earth is closest to the sun, as it traverses its elliptical orbit, shifts forward from January through February and with in the yearly seasons' cycle, Pielou explains.

The role played by the drifting continents over vast periods of time has interfered with warm water from the tropics being cut off from the northern and southern polar regions. Warm water from the equator, billions of years ago, was free to flow around the globe including around and over the poles. The continents have gone through a number of changes over long period of time including major changes in location where they tend to slow the flow of warm equatorial water that has been all but shut off at both poles allowing those areas to become colder in the winter. The  climatic effect of these cycles is a variation in the degree of contrast between summer and winter temperatures, she wrote. (p. 8.). This contrast between the seasons is the climatic factor that, more than any ohter, accounts for the fomration and disappearance of ice sheets over the land during a "Glacial Age".


"Throughout most of the glacial age (that is during the glaciations) when the contrast  between seasons is comparatively slight, summer temperatures are not high enough for the previous winter's snow and ice to melt. They accumulate year after year, inexorably building up huge contintal ice sheets in temperate latitudes even though the winters are relatively mild." (p. 9)


to be continued






Thursday, October 23, 2014

2-11-15 Getting There

Nice, early morning (1-14-15) photo of Mt. Kangchenjunga from Darjeeling, West Bengal
  
Another just as the sun is hitting the summit. Beautiful mountain!

So I took some time off you can see and spent several weeks in India and can only recommend it to all readers who have not had the intense pleasure of spending time there. It's an intense experience.

I've been promising to get back to the blog and have sorted through a number of notes from readers wanting to know my whereabouts. The good news is I've done a fair bit of reading in the past three months with a lot of it about the very reason this blog exists which is trying to define more precisely what the White Mountains of New Hampshire looked like during the Wisconsin glacial period, and then some idea of goings on between 11,000 years ago and the present--what was all that about.

Then there are some biographical pieces I've been working on about interesting people who spent a lot of time in and knew a lot about the Whites. Then there will be entries about current things of interest. So heave to, we'll be coming about.

Tuesday, September 16, 2014

9-7-14 Mt. Katahdin

I have to say it 's been years and years since I was last in Millinocket--maybe 55 years have passed, or close, and it hasn't changed a lot. The Great Northern Paper mill has closed and the town is a bit rundown, but it has potential certainly due to all the recreational close by and the northern terminus of the Appalachian Trail (AT). For me, as a young teen, it was the jumping off place to the Maine wilderness and, even with the mill, it held a feeling of romance. This trip I was traveling with my daughter, Liz, who's working trail crew at Acadia National Park this summer. We'd driven 8 hours to visit her boyfriend who heads up a Maine Conservation Corps trail crews on Katahdin. He came out of the woods to meet us in Millinocket.

Arriving in Millinocket, Liz and I had driven less than two blocks when we saw these two gents who looked a lot like nattily dressed AT Thru Hikers. They had finished the trail on Friday and were getting ready to head home to Germany. They live in the Schwarzwald region along the Austrian border and said the most memorable event of their trip was arriving at Galehead Hut on South Twin (in New Hampshire) in a heavy rain, drenched to the bone--everything they owned soaked. The recounted how great the Galehead Hut crew was, warmly welcoming them and helping them dry their gear. They only thing lacking was beer, they laughed.

Early morning shot of Katahdin from the dirt road to Roaring Brook Campground and trail head.


Chimney Pond with Baxter Peak, the highest point of Katahdin, in the center. The Cathedral Trail goes up the ridge on the right, curving in an arc, to the summit. We stayed inside the park at a Maine Conservation Corp facility which made it possible to get on the trail early. Katahdin is beautiful. This glacial cirque is similar to Tuckerman Ravine, Huntington Ravine and, in some ways, like King Ravine of the Presidential Range in New Hampshire. The plants and animals are conspicuously similar to the alpine plants of Mt. Washington and the entire alpine zone of the Presidential Range, as well.

The Cathedral with Baxter Peak in the center background.


The Cathedral Trail starts at the Ranger's Cabin on the northeast shore of Chimney Pond. It climbs gently to the base of the Cathedral before dropping you off here at the bottom of this steep boulder field. The route through the boulder field is well marked but the climbing, in places was more of a rock climb, a 5.2. There are three people in the photograph to aid in getting an idea of scale.

Looking down towards the boulder field and Chimney Pond I was reminded of the last blog entry and my hike up the King Ravine Trail on Mt. Adams in July. There are a number of similarities between the two glacial cirques including the steepness of the walls. In King Ravine the boulder field in the lower section of the bowl is referred to as a Rock Glacier (see article for an explanation) and here on Katahdin it is a boulder field made up of very large and some not so large boulders that came off of The Cathedral and, probably, the upper walls of Katahdin, but that is a presumption on my part.

As we came to the top of the Cathedral Mt. Pamola and Knife Edge came into view. Pamola is in the center with the Keep Ridge sloping to the left. The Helon Taylor Trail lies along that ridge and was the route of one of the original trails on the east side of Katahdin and called the Keep Trail. The famous Knife Edge is to the right.

I camped at Chimney Pond with some friends for several days in 1959. I was 15, or about, and Katahdin was dreamy to us as we explored the trails and ridges. It seemed so wild compared to any other place we had hiked. I remember coming down the Cathedral Trail late one afternoon from the summit plateau chased by a thunderstorm and dancing down the tops of the boulders, from rock to rock, unperturbed. On this trip I felt shaky at the thought of having to go down that route.


Looking east through the eastern terminus of the glacial cirque. The Appalachian Mountain Club had a guest lodge on Katahdin Lake from 1877 until the early 1900s. The club cut several trails from the lodge to surrounding peaks. In the 1920s thru the 1950s they ran trips for climbers and a number of the AMC's best rock climbers like Marjorie Hurd, Miriam and Robert Underhill, John Post, and others laid out a number of routes on the south wall of the Great Basin including the Chimney, itself.

A better view of the Knife Edge and The Chimney which is the gully running straight down from the right of Pamola. It was compelling to stop and scrutinize the shape and topography of the south wall which would have its equivalent in Tuckerman Ravine in Boott Spur.

From the second Cathedral looking northwest at Hamlin Ridge where the Hamlin Ridge Trail connects Chimney Pond with the summit and the summit plateau. It is perhaps the easiest of the east side trails. Between the Hamlin and Cathedral trails is the Saddle Trail which is a safer way down than Cathedral particularly in a storm. Ranges advise hikers to go up Cathedral and come down the Dudley Trail in making the loop. Another loop is to go up Cathedral, across the Knife Edge to Pamola and then down the Helon Taylor Trail back down to Roaring Brook.

Looking east.

A little after noon we were faced with a decision whether to continue as the wind on the summit was increasing steadily making the Knife Edge a concern. Several of our party decided to go back down. One was okay with finishing the loop and was able to convince a second to go on as well for increased safety.  Hikers were beginning to descend by us as we ate lunch saying how cold and windy it was above. I dd not want to go down the way we came up and pictured a long afternoon of it. But, after a few moments of being queasy we found the descent to be a lark with the same ease and enticement of the descent all those decades ago.

 I made it to the bottom of the boulder field without even stumbling once and after removing wind breakers, readjusting our packs and munching some lunch near Chimney Pond in preparation for the gentler descent I tripped and fell with the above results. First aid was applied and we were off again.

Basin Pond looking due West up towards Hamlin Ridge. One of the reasons I came to Katahdin, besides spending time with Liz, was to do some botanizing with Dewey's trail crew, who, as they were in the woods all day wanted to know about the names of plants and, particularly, the medicinals and the edibles. Most of the crew was from the western states and they were unfamiliar with eastern plants. There are only one or two species of alpines found on Katahdin that don't grow in the Alpine Zone of the Presidentials, and vice versa. One thing that distinguishes northern Maine is the vast amount of eastern Cedar, and the extensive cedar swamps.
It was great to be on Katahdin again after all this time. It brought back a lot of memories, and that wonderful feeling of wildness that is preserved here. The State of Maine has put in place regulations designed to sustain the wild state of the Katahdin region similar to the management of the Adirondacks in New York. Sitting at Basin Pond watching the clouds and the sun on the pond and listening to the sound of waves lapping on the shore you were surrounded by wilderness, but there was something unseen, too, that I couldn't name but could easily feel and that's one of the primary reasons we are so attracted to wilderness. It felt wonderful. The medicinal for stress.
Liz and "Dewey" (Christopher) contemplating a swim after the hike.  They have been working on trail crew out West in the National Parks, mainly King Canyon, and came east for a a change

Liz at 25.

Sunday, July 27, 2014

7-26-14 Mt. Adams, King Ravine

Saturday I did something I've never done before which was to hike the King Ravine Trail to the top of the King Ravine head wall. This trail is one of the most wild and charismatic trails in the White Mountains and it was the perfect day for it; a perfect summer day as the photos attests. The King Ravine Trail requires some elementary rock climbing techniques, provides more exercise than the gym, and it's fun. The photo is looking north towards the Pliny Range (closest and which includes Mt. Starr King and Mt. Waumbek), towards the Kilkenny Wilderness with Mt. Cabot (part of the Pilot Range) in the distance and down onto the "rock glacier" on the floor of King Ravine. The light colored opening in the very center of the photo is the location of Lowe's Store where I started my hike.
The bottom of Lowe's Path where it's swallowed by the forest just of Route 2 in Randolph, across the road from Lowe's store and gas station. The name on the store is related to the name of the trail which was cut between September 1875 and the summer of 1876 by Charles Lowe and Dr. William Nowell. It was originally designed to go straight from the front door of Lowe's house, called Brookvale, in Randolph, directly to the summit of Mt. Adams with the deliberate intention of making the grade as even and unvaried as possible. Charles' descendants still run Lowe's Store.
Although the Lowe's Path was Charles Lowe's passion William Nowell made notable
contributions to its creation as well as the creation and upkeep of other trails over the decades. With the founding of the Appalachian Mountain Club (AMC) in June, 1876, both men would be at the core of the AMC's trail building initiative, and, in fact, it was Nowell, as the Club's "Councillor of Improvements" who drew up a lengthy list of trails the "to be made", paths that would occupy both Nowell and Lowe for the next 20 years. This photo is taken on the northwest flank of Nowell Ridge. Readers might remember an article in this blog posted three years ago where I measured the largest trees on Nowell Ridge, mostly yellow birch and occasionally a large red spruce.

Hikers from Camp Tecumseh, located on Lake Winnepesauke in Moultonborough, NH, fly by me.

This yellow birch was one of the largest ones I measured at 3 feet 2 inches in diameter. It's right off the trail....
and towers over the surrounding forest trees

A stone stair case which is an effective method, labor intensive, for preventing trail erosion. It uses materials at hand which is an advantage.

A water bar that uses materials at hand.

This enterprising group was making its 15th anniversary hike up Mt. Adams and were about to divide into two groups--one group heading up the Lowe's Path and the other up the King Ravine Trail.

The Lowe's Path at its junction with The Link.

The junction of the King Ravine Trail from Lowe's Path.

Cascade Camp, originally built by Charles Lowe and a handful of other trail builder as a makeshift shelter so they wouldn't have to go all the way back down to the valley every night, but it quickly became a popular, fanciful place for hikers and hiking parties over the years. It was located just off  Lowe's Path a short distant above the King Ravine Trail junction. (Photo by Guy L. Shorey and reproduced from Among the White Hills: The life and Times of Guy L. Shorey edited by Guy A. Gosselin and Susan B. Hawkins, foreword by Bradford Washburn, pubished by Mount Washington Observatory, 1998)
The King Ravine Trail follows the contour of the west wall of King Ravine to economize on ups and downs and it twists and turns through hardwoods like these yellow birches and balsam fir and spruce as it cuts across the lower floor of the Ravine.

The forest in the Ravine is but a reminder of a great forest that grew here prior to the logging that reached this high on Mt. Adams in the early 1900s. At that time there was a large logging camp on the floor of the ravine that had the look and feel of a small town and even sported a mens clothing store. In the 1920s the eastern wall was severely burned over by a forest fire that climbed over the Air Line Trail and progressed down as far as Snyder Brook before being extinguished by heavy rain.

This King Ravine Trail crossed Cold Brook just below the trail junction
with the Short Line Trail and just below Mossy Falls, one of the loveliest
waterfalls in the White Mountains.

Just above Mossy Falls the trail begins to rise steeply, and
though still in the forest, it becomes apparent that the
landscape is changing.

Within a few more yards it offers some easy rock
climbing over a series of boulders...

and, here and there, some views up to the top of the ravine.

There's a tendency for hikers to bunch up on some sections
that require more time to navigate as in the next photo.



The Reverend Thomas Starr King began writing The White Hills around 1860
and there's confusion about the dates of his visits to the Randolph area. He
often was in the company of James Gordon, a well known mountain guide who
blazed out a crude trail from Broad Acres Farm straight up Mt. Madison that was
rough in places but popular with hikers trying to get up onto the ridge. This may
have been as early as 1858. Starr King ascended Gordon's trail up Madison before his
ascent through King Ravine. We don't know the date of his King Ravine exploration,
but assume it was close to 1859. On that trip, James Gordon was also his guide.

These undaunted hikers scurry off to complete the side trail called
the "Subway" which is great fun as it takes the trail under boulders
rather than over the tops of them.


From Rev. Thomas Star King's The White Hills, p. 358, 1870, "Huge rocks were piled in the most eccentric confusion; crevasses, sometimes twenty and thirtyfeet deep and spanned with moss, lay in wait for the feet; thickets of scrub spruces and junipers overgrew these boulders, and made the most sinewy opposition to our passage. Every muscle of our bodies was called into play fighting these dwarfed and knotty regiments of evergreens. A more thorough gymnasium for training and testing the working and enduring powers of the system could not be arranged by art. After six hours of steady and hard climbing--which, added to three of the afternoon previous, made nine hours of toil in scaling the ridge--we gained the plateau above which the pinnacle of Adams soars."

Huge boulders on the ravine floor just below the head wall. The
size of this boulder can not be appreciated from this photo, but
it is as big as a small house. Many are larger.

It's rather daunting. Earlier in this blog I reviewed a research
paper that gave an excellent history and description of this
"Rock Glacier" that has made King Ravine famous.

King Ravine Rock Glacier: A slight digression 

A Masters Thesis written in 1978 by Diane Eskenasy, then a University of Massachusetts grad student, was titled The Origin of The King Ravine Rock Glacier in The Presidential Range of the White Mountains of New Hampshire. Her thesis, and several others on various topics, somehow, or other, ended up at Tuck Shelter some years ago and they've been sitting in the book shelf there to be read by a few curious souls. I've been curious about the "rock glacier" in King Ravine for years and have wanted to camp in King Ravine for a few days to explore its nooks and crannies. The rock glacier is reported to be the only one of its kind in New England. They are commonly found in the Rocky Mountains in Colorado and Wyoming. Ms Eskenasy wrote: "King Ravine, one of the north facing cirques on the Presidential Range, contains an inactive rock glacier, a mass of rocks having the morphology of an alpine glacier." I may, this summer, get into King Ravine and integrate Ms Eskenasy's thesis into a blog article with photos that might help explain what a rock glacier is and how it evolved.

Shape of the King Ravine rock glacier from an aerial photo. The mass of rock debris is roughly 1800 feet long and 1000 feet wide. ( Diane Eskenasy, 1978).

This is a profile representing the rock glacier after the separation of the King Ravine ice lobe from the continental ice sheet after the disappearance of the ice sheet from New Hampshire. (From Eskenasy, 1978). (I took photos of these diagrams using my camera with one hand while I attempted to flatten the page with my other hand--which accounts for the distortion in parallax)

Modern profile of the rock glacier. The term rock glacier doesn't imply that the rock lobe is moving. It means that the glacier, at one time, when it was active transported blocks from higher on the cirque headwall. The predominant ice has since melted leaving the blocks in the form of a glacier. The time line between the first diagram and this one is roughly 11,000 years (from Eskenasy, 1978).

The trail is effective in getting to the head wall itself, but becomes
just a part of the fabric of the mountain beyond this sign where it
heads upward using an existing rock "stream" and doesn't stop 'til it
reaches the top. The trail is relatively steep, averaging just under
40 degrees from just beyond this sign up to top.

A great beginning!

It quickly climbs and with the need to use both arms and legs
it becomes absorbing the way a rock climb does so that one
doesn't notice the larger panorama. That's the rock glacier in
the center of the photo.

A good, well defined perspective of the "rock glacier" that sits
in the mid section of the ravine floor.

These "fresh" looking boulders make one think of others that
might follow. This one has no lichen or moss and the inference
is that it came down recently, but, in fact, it may have come
down years ago. Still, it gives one pause, particularly as
you look up at what's above.

This may not look it, but it's very steep, and the huge rock formation
in the background is near the so-called "Gateway" at the top, and
seems to be overhanging the trail. The rock "stream" is the trail.
The overhanging rock formation looked a bit ominous and I felt
myself listening for falling rocks.

A second showing of this photo and a reminder of what a lovely day it was.

Looking north along the eastern wall. The Chemin des Dames Trail meets the Air Line Trail just about in the center of the photo. In fact, if you look closely, you can see a gentleman in a bright yellow shirt that I passed near Mossy Falls, just coming out above tree line.

Balsam fir cones. The steepness at this elevation on the head wall is similar to Tuckerman Ravine head wall. The two ravines are similar in several ways and most conspicuously in the way the curvature of the "bowl" shape that is often the defining feature of small, local glacial cirques.



Yes, this is a boulder.

Steep slabs often referred to as the "bulk heads" at the eastern crest of the headwall.

Abigail Adams across the head wall.

The King's Gateway as it was originally called.

A photo of a hiker circa 1926 relaxing on the rock above the Gateway taken my Guy Shorey,
(from Among the White Hills: The life and Times of Guy L. Shorey edited by Guy Gosselin and Susan Hawkins, foreword by Bradford Washburn, pubished by Mount Washington Observatory, 1998)

Topping out just below the summit of J. Q. Adams.

Beautiful Mt. Madison. 

Rev. Thomas Starr King emerged from King Ravine through "the 
massive gateway" that "marks the boundary between rugged ravine 
and exposed mountain-side. It was in emerging  from the ravine at 
his point that (King) obtained the view of Mt. Madison to which he 
refers as so striking." ( p. 93 Appalachia Vol. 1, 1876-1878.) In August,
1876, almost 20 years later, Charles Lowe and J. Rayner Edmands sat 
at this same spot and discussed standarizing the King Ravine "Path". Lowe, 
with the help of hired woodsmen, completed it on September 16, 1876.

  Hikers coming down from the summit of J. Q. (John Quincy) 
Adams (the summit of Mt. Adams is off to the right and 
a little higher)

Lovely as can be. Looking north across to Mt. Waumbek (4,006' asl) on the right, and
Mt. Starr King (closest and in the center). Mt. Cabot is in the center distance on the skyline .

Alpine goldenrod.

This has long been my favorite spot in the White Mountains 
at the top of the Valley Way Trail.

Looking back at Mt. Madison over a small forest of balsam fir.

Megan Farrell of the Madison hut crew on her way up to the 
hut with a load of "Req", meaning fresh food and sundries.
I ran down in a little over an hour, hitch hiked back to Lowe's Store 
to get my car and was in Gorham by 5 pm.